Some of the questions:
Google terminology - What's the difference between an index update, an algorithm update, and a data refresh?
Static vs. Dynamic urls: does PageRank flow the same to both?
Does Google Analytics play a part in ranking web pages? [ Short answer: no. ]
Should I worry about results estimates for 1) supplemental results 2) using the site operator 3) with negated terms and 4) special syntax such as intitle? [ Short answer: no. ]
Which is more important: search engine optimization (SEO) or end user optimization? [ Short answer: both should be the same kind of optimization. ]
One of the best pieces of advice to follow is not to design a site with search engines in mind, because search engines are not your visitors (they crawl your site), they change the algorithms often and their main aim is to have great results for the users. So if you design a site with the user in mind, you'll know that even if a search engine penalizes you for a while, it will change its mind soon. So everytime you make a change to your site, ask this question: will it help the visitors?
Update: some partial transcripts are available at Google Blogoscoped (transcript 1, transcript 2).